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社会科学综合
Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind
作者:Charles Horton Cooley  译者(编者):
ISBN:  语言:英文
出版日期:1909年  出版社:New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
MIND is an organic whole made up of cooperating individualities, in somewhat the same way that the music of an orchestra is made up of divergent but related sounds. No one would think it necessary or reasonable to divide the music into two kinds, that made by the whole and that of particular instruments, and no more are there two kinds of mind, the social mind and the individual mind. When we study the social mind we merely fix our attention on larger aspects and relations rather than on the narrower ones of ordinary psychology.

  Part I -- PRIMARY ASPECTS OF ORGANIZATION
MIND is an organic whole made up of cooperating individualities, in somewhat the same way that the music of an orchestra is made up of divergent but related sounds. No one would think it necessary or reasonable to divide the music into two kinds, that made by the whole and that of particular instruments, and no more are there two kinds of mind, the social mind and the individual mind. When we study the social mind we merely fix our attention on larger aspects and relations rather than on the narrower ones of ordinary psychology.
  • Chapter 1: Social and Individual Aspects of Mind
  • Chapter 2: Social and Individual Aspects of Mind
  • Chapter 3: Primary Groups
  • Chapter 4: Primary Ideals
  • Chapter 5: The Extension of Primary Ideals

  •   PART II -- COMMUNICATION
    BY Communication is here meant the mechanism through which human relations exist and develop—all the symbols of the mind, together with the means of conveying them through space and preserving them in time. It includes the expression of the face, attitude and gesture, the tones of the voice, words, writing, printing, railways, telegraphs, telephones, and whatever else may be the latest achievement in the conquest of space and time. All these taken together, in the intricacy of their actual combination, make up an organic whole corresponding to the organic whole of human thought; and everything in the way of mental growth has an external existence therein. The more closely we consider this mechanism the more intimate will appear its relation to the inner life of mankind, and nothing will more help us to understand the latter than such consideration.
  • Chapter 6: The Significance of Communication
  • Chapter 7: The Growth of Communication
  • Chapter 8: Modern Communication:Enlargement and Animation
  • Chapter 9: Modern Communication: Individuality
  • Chapter 10: Modern Communication:Superficiality and Strain

  •   PART III -- THE DEMOCRATIC MIND
    IN a life like that of the Teutonic tribes before they took on Roman civilization, the social medium was small, limited for most purposes to the family, clan or village group. Within this narrow circle there was a vivid interchange of thought and feeling, a sphere of moral unity, of sympathy, loyalty, honor and congenial intercourse. Here precious traditions were cherished, and here also was the field for an active public opinion, for suggestion and discussion, for leading and following, for conformity and dissent " In this kindly soil of the family," says Professor Gummer in his Germanic Origins, "flourished such growth of sentiment as that rough life brought forth. Peace, good-will, the sense of honor, loyalty to friend and kinsman, brotherly affection, all were plants that found in the Germanic home that congenial warmth they needed for their earliest stages of growth.... Originally the family or clan made a definite sphere or system of life; Outside of it the homeless man felt indeed that chaos had come again
  • Chapter 11: The Enlargement of Consciousness
  • Chapter 12: The Theory of Public Opinion
  • Chapter 13: What the Masses Contribute
  • Chapter 14: Democracy and Crowd Excitement
  • Chapter 15: Democracy and Distinction
  • Chapter 16: The Trend of Sentiment
  • Chapter 17: The Trend of Sentiment (continued)

  •   PART IV -- SOCIAL CLASSES
    SPEAKING roughly, we may call any persistent social group, other than the family, existing within a larger group, a class. And every society, except possibly the most primitive, is more or less distinctly composed of classes. Even in savage tribes there are, besides families and clans, almost always other associations: of warriors, of magicians and so on; and these continue throughout all phases of development until we reach the intricate group structure of our own time. Individuals never achieve their life in separation, but always in cooperation with a group of other minds, and in proportion as these cooperating groups stand out from one another with some distinctness they constitute social classes.
  • Chapter 18: The Hereditary or Caste Principle
  • Chapter 19: The Conditions Favoring or Opposing the Growth of Caste
  • Chapter 20: The Outlook Regarding Caste
  • Chapter 21: Open Classes
  • Chapter 22: How Far Wealth is the Basis of Open Classes
  • Chapter 23: The Ascendancy of a Capitalist Class
  • Chapter 24: The Ascendancy of a Capitalist Class -- (continued)
  • Chapter 25: The Organization of the Ill-Paid Classes
  • Chapter 26: Poverty
  • Chapter 27: Hostile Feeling between Classes

  •   PART V -- INSTITUTIONS
    AN institution is simply a definite and established phase of the public mind, not different in its ultimate nature from public opinion, though often seeming, on account of its ; permanence and the visible customs and symbols in which it is clothed, to have a somewhat distinct and independent existence. Thus the political state and the church, with their venerable associations, their vast and ancient power, their literature, buildings and offices, hardly appear even to a democratic people as the mere products of human invention which, of course, they are.
  • Chapter 28: Institutions and the Individual
  • Chapter 29: Institutions and the Individual (continued)
  • Chapter 30: Formalism and Disorganization
  • Chapter 31: Disorganization: The Family
  • Chapter 32: Disorganization: The Church
  • Chapter 33: Disorganization: Other Traditions

  •   PART VI -- PUBLIC WILL
    WHAT I shall say about Public Will—which is only another phase of the Democratic Mind—might well have been introduced under Part III; but I put it here because in a sense it rounds off our whole inquiry, involving some general conclusions as to the method and possibility of social betterment.
  • Chapter 34: The Function of Public Will
  • Chapter 35: Government as Public Will
  • Chapter 36: Some Phases of the Larger Will


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