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Appendix

图书名称:From Savage to Negro:Anthropology and the Construction of Race, 1896–1954
图书作者:Lee D. Baker    ISBN:
出版社:Berkeley: University of California Press    出版日期:1998年

Time Line of Major Events

This cursory time line should help locate writings and events I discuss within a larger historical framework.

 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1886

Haymarket Square Riot

D. G. Brinton appointed professor at the University of Pennsylvania

1887

Dawes Servility Act

F. W. Putnam appointed professor at Harvard University; F. Boas initiates museum debates in Science

1888

B. Harrison elected president

J. W. Powell elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; Boas founds the American Folk-Lore Society

1889

 

F. Boas joins the faculty at Clark University

1890

Democrats win control of Congress; Massacre at Wounded Knee

D. G. Brinton's Races and Peoples and N. S. Shaler's "Science and the African Problem" published

 
 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1892

G. Cleveland reelected president; Homestead Strike; 241 African Americans murdered by lynch mobs

F. Starr appointed assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Chicago

1893

Financial "Panic"

World's Fair, Chicago: anthropology introduced to the American public as popular culture

1894

Pullman Strike

D. G. Brinton elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; F. W. Putnam appointed curator of anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History; F. Boas speaks on "Human Faculty as Determined by Race" before the American Association for the Advancement of Science and helps organize the Hampton Folklore Society

1895

B. T. Washington's "Atlanta Compromise" speech at the Cotton States and International Exposition

D. G. Brinton speaks on "The Aims of Anthropology" before the American Association for the Advancement of Science

1896

W. McKinley elected president; the Supreme Court decides Plessy v. Ferguson

F. L. Hoffman'sRace Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro, F. A. Walker's "Immigration Restriction," and F. Boas's "The Limitations of the Comparative Method" published; F. Boas joins the staff of the American Museum of Natural History and becomes a lecturer at Columbia University

 
 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1897

W. McKinley inaugurated president

F. Starr's "The Degeneracy of the American Negro" appears; W. E. B. Du Bois publishes "The Conservation of Races" and is appointed to the faculty of Atlanta University

1898

Spanish-American War; occupation of Cuba, Samoa, and the Philippines

F. W. Putnam elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

1899

T. Roosevelt writes The Rough Ridersin a serial forScribner's

WJ McGee's "The Trend of Human Progress," T. Veblen'sThe Theory of the Leisure Class,and W. E. B. Du Bois'sThe Philadelphia Negropublished; F. Boas becomes a professor at Columbia University

1900

The United States annexes Hawaii; I. B. Wells-Barnett's Mob Rule in New Orleanspublished

F. Boas becomes president of the American Folk-Lore Society

1901

W. McKinley assassinated; T. Roosevelt assumes the presidency; F. Norris's The Octopuspublished; T. Roosevelt dines with B. T. Washington

F. Galton delivers "The Possible Improvement of the Human Breed under the Existing Conditions of Law and Sentiment" as his Huxley Lecture to the British Anthropological Institution, which is reprinted in NatureandPopular Science Monthly;the U.S. eugenics movement initiated

1903

W. E. B. Du Bois's The Souls of Black Folkpublished

A. Hrdli imageka becomes assistant curator of physical anthropology at the U.S. National Museum

 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1904

T. Roosevelt's first presidential campaign; riot in Statesboro, Ga.; Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis; Lochner v. New York

 

1905

W. E. B. Du Bois organizes the Niagara Movement

Ota Benga, from Zaire, exhibited at the Bronx Zoo

1906

Riot in Brownsville, Ga.; U. Sinclair's The Junglepublished; Meat Inspection Act; Pure Food and Drug Act

F. Boas delivers the commencement address at Atlanta University; R. B. Bean's "The Negro Brain" published

1907

F. Ziegfeld begins his annual Ziegfeld Follies

F. Boas's "The Anthropological Position of the Negro" and B. R. Tillman's "The Race Question" published

1908

Muller v. Oregon

F. Boas becomes editor of theJournal of American Folk-Loreand holds the position for the next 15 years

1909

M. W. Ovington organizes the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

F. Boas's "Industries of African Negroes" published

1910

 

F. Boas's "The Real Race Problem" published; A. Hrdli imageka appointed curator at the U.S. National Museum

1911

M. W. Ovington's Half a Manappears

F. Boas's The Mind of Primitive Manappears

1912

T. Roosevelt organizes the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party; W. Wilson elected president; R. Pound's "The Scope and Purpose of Sociological Jurisprudence" published

 
 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1914

W. Wilson segregates federal agencies; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People responds by issuing a terse statement; World War I begins

F. Boas's "Mythology and Folk-Tales of the North American Indians" appears

1915

The Ku Klux Klan officially incorporated and reorganized; D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nationreleased; B. T. Washington dies

 

1916

W. Wilson reelected president

Anthropology Committee organized at the National Research Council

1917

Buchanan v. Warley;race riot in East St. Louis; the United States enters World War I

Journal of American Folk-Loreissues its first "Negro Number"; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People marches on Manhattan

1918

W. E. B. Du Bois writes "Close Ranks"; C. Davenport and M. Grant organize the Galton Society

A. Hrdli imageka founds the American Journal of Physical Anthropology;P. Popenoe and R. H. Johnson foundApplied Genetics

1919

New York's 15th Infantry marches on Manhattan

F. Boas publishes "Scientists as Spies" and is censured by the American Anthropological Association; E. C. Parson's "The Provenience of Certain Negro Folk-Tales" appears

1920

Nineteenth Amendment (women's suffrage) ratified; W. G. Harding becomes president; Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles

 
 
 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1921

 

E. C. Parsons's "Folk Lore from Aiken, South Carolina" published; A. Hrdli imageka speaks on eugenics at American University

1922

 

A. E. Perkins's "Riddles from Negro School Children in New Orleans, La." appears

1923

W. G. Harding dies; C. Coolidge assumes the presidency

C. G. Woodson and F. Boas organize Negro folklore contest

1924

Immigration Restriction Act

 

1925

A. Locke's The New Negropublished

 

1926

M. Johnson appointed president of Howard University

 

1927

 

A. H. Fauset's "Negro Folk Tales from the South" and E. F. Frazier's "Is the Negro Family a Unique Sociological Unit?" appear

1928

Black organizations support A. Smith for president; northern Republicans woo southern White Republicans in the presidential campaign

M. Mead publishes Coming of Age in Samoa

1929

H. Hoover becomes president; the stock market crashes and the Great Depression ensues; W. White's Rope and Faggotappears; C. H. Houston appointed dean of Howard School of Law

A. Hrdli imageka establishes the American Association of Physical Anthropologists; W. M. Cobb enters Case Western Reserve University to study physical anthropology and anatomy

 
 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1930

C. E. Hughes appointed Chief Justice; the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People blocks J. J. Parker's nomination to the Court

Z. N. Hurston's "Dance Songs and Tales from the Bahamas" published

1931

W. White appointed executive director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

A. H. Fauset's Folklore from Nova Scotia,Z. N. Hurston's "Hoodoo in American," and A. R. Radcliffe-Brown'sThe Social Organization of Australian Tribes published

1932

F. D. Roosevelt elected president

 

1933

Legislation passed for the Tennessee Valley Authority; the National Recovery Act established; T. Marshall graduates from Howard School of Law

 

1934

 

C. H. Houston and J. P. Davis's "TVA: Lily-White Reconstruction" and R. Benedict'sPatterns of Culture appear

1935

Antilynching bill fails in the Senate; Italy invades Ethiopia; Z. N. Hurston's Mules and Menpublished

C. H. Houston becomes chief counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and his "Educational Inequalities Must Go" appears; W. White meets with F. D. Roosevelt, who backs down from supporting the antilynching bill

 
 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1936

A. Hitler snubs J. Owens in the Berlin Olympic Games; F. D. Roosevelt reelected; Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States; Murray v. Maryland; United States v. Butler

 

1937

F. D. Roosevelt's courtpacking plan proposed

 

1938

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada;G. Myrdal begins research on the Negro problem for the Carnegie Corporation

 

1939

F. Frankfurter joins the Supreme Court; Germany invades Poland

The Legal Defense Fund of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People becomes a separate, tax-exempt organization, wit T. Marshall as director; W. M. Cobb's "The Negro as a Biological Element of the American Population" published

1940

Germany invades Scandinavia and France; F. D. Roosevelt reelected to a third term; E. Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tollsand R. Wright'sNative Sonappear

 

1941

F. D. Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802, ending employment discrimination in the defense industry; the United States declares war on Japan

 

1942

F. D. Roosevelt issues Executive Order 9066, establishing military areas for Japanese Americans

F. Boas dies

 
 

YEAR

NATIONAL EVENTS

EVENTS INFLUENCING ANTHROPOLOGY

1943

Allies invade Italy

 

1944

Smith v. Allwright

G. Myrdal'sAn American Dilemmaappears

1945

F. D. Roosevelt dies; atomic bombs dropped; Japan and Germany surrender

S. C. Drake and H. R. Cayton publish Black Metropolis

1946

H. S. Truman forms the President's Commission on Civil Rights

 

1947

The President's Commission on Civil Rights Report, To Secure These Rights , issued

 

1948

H. S. Truman desegregates federal agencies, including the military; Shelley v. Kraemer

 

1949

Berlin Airlift; People's Republic of China established

 

1950

J. R. McCarthy begins anti-communist crusade; Sweatt v. Painter, McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education

 

1951

 

E. E. Evans-Pritchard'sKinship and Marriage among the Nuerpublished

1952

D. D. Eisenhower elected president

 

1954

McCarthy hearings; Brown v. Board of Education

 

1955

R. Parks refuses to give up her seat on a bus; M. L. King Jr. launches Montgomery Bus Strike

 
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