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The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind
作者:Le Bon, Gustave  译者(编者):
ISBN:  语言:英文
出版日期:1896年  出版社:NEW YORK:THE MACMILLAN CO.
'When popular opinion is nearly unanimous, contrary thinking tends to be most profitable. The reason is that once the crowd takes a position, it creates a short- term, self- fulfilling prophecy. But when a change occurs, everyone seems to change his mind at once. In his classic work, The Crowd, Gustave Le Bon observed that 'the special characteristics of crowds are several - such as impulsiveness, an incapability to reason, the absence of judgement and of the critical spirit.'

  Front Matter
Organised crowds have always played an important part in the life of peoples, but this part has never been of such moment as at present. The substitution of the unconscious action of crowds for the conscious activity of individuals is one of the principal characteristics of the present age.
  • Preface
  • INTRODUCTION:THE ERA OF CROWDS

  •   BOOK I. THE MIND OF CROWDS.
    What constitutes a crowd from the psychological point of view -- A numerically strong agglomeration of individuals does not suffice to form a crowd -- Special characteristics of psychological crowds -- The turning in a fixed direction of the ideas and sentiments of individuals composing such a crowd, and the disappearance of their personality -- The crowd is always dominated by considerations of which it is unconscious -- The disappearance of brain activity and the predominance of medullar activity -- The lowering of the intelligence and the complete transformation of the sentiments -- The transformed sentiments may be better or worse than those of the individuals of which the crowd is composed -- A crowd is as easily heroic as criminal.
  • CHAPTER I.GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CROWDS. -- PYSCHOLOGICAL LAW OF THEIR MENTAL UNITY
  • CHAPTER II.THE SENTIMENTS AND MORALITY OF CROWDS
  • CHAPTER III.THE IDEAS, REASONING POWER, AND IMAGINATION OF CROWDS
  • CHAPTER IV.A RELIGIOUS SHAPE ASSUMED BY ALL THE CONVICTIONS OF CROWDS

  •   BOOK II. THE OPINIONS AND BELIEFS OF CROWDS.
    Preparatory factors of the beliefs of crowds -- The origin of the beliefs of crowds is the consequence of a preliminary process of elaboration -- Study of the different factors of these beliefs.
  • CHAPTER I.REMOTE FACTORS OF THE OPINIONS AND BELIEFS OF CROWDS
  • CHAPTER II.THE IMMEDIATE FACTORS OF THE OPINIONS OF CROWDS
  • CHAPTER III.THE LEADERS OF CROWDS AND THEIR MEANS OF PERSUASION
  • CHAPTER IV.LIMITATIONS OF THE VARIABILITY OF THE BELIEFS AND OPINIONS OF CROWDS

  •   BOOK III. THE CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF CROWDS.
    The general divisions of crowds -- Their classification. § 1. Heterogeneous crowds. Different varieties of them -- The influence of race -- The spirit of the crowd is weak in proportion as the spirit of the race is strong -- The spirit of the race represents the civilised state and the spirit of the crowd the barbarian state. § 2. Homogeneous crowds. Their different varieties -- Sects, castes, and classes.
  • CHAPTER I.THE CLASSIFICATION OF CROWDS
  • CHAPTER II.CROWDS TERMED CRIMINAL CROWDS
  • CHAPTER III.CRIMINAL JURIES
  • CHAPTER IV.ELECTORAL CROWDS
  • CHAPTER V.PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLIES


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